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Apple Watch: Features and History

apple watch features
apple watch features

The original Apple Watch was first released in 2015 with three distinct models, several bands, and software for communication. Rather than become a fashion icon or social revolution, the device evolved into the health and fitness wearable of today. However, the changeable bands do remain an essential part of the product.

Apple Watch Key Features

Although the Apple watch has a few design changes every year to new models, they share some similar features. The device runs watchOS, an operating system built specifically for the tiny watch screen. The Digital Crown, changeable watch bands, and an OLED screen have persisted throughout each generation.

watchOS

As Apple figured out what the Apple Watch is for, there have been a few redesigns of watchOS. While fitness and health were obvious uses, it wasn’t always the priority. The first iteration of watchOS focused on communication with favorite friends, heartbeat sharing, and shareable doodles.

apple watch features
apple watch features

By 2018, Apple finally decided what should Apple watch focus on — more health, notification, and fitness focus. Each hardware revision and software update has refined these features into a mature operating system.

With the introduce of watchOS 8 in 2021, users can access the Share Sheet from more locations and better control text entry. Apple also introduced a new photo portrait watch face and the Find My app in this update.

Watch Faces

But something that disappoints Apple watch users is Apple has never allowed third-party watch faces to be made for users. Instead, Apple provides custom watch faces with the occasional new face or update each year.

apple watch features
apple watch features

Even though the watch face choices are limited, there are still many watch face with mutiple color options. Add in custom complications and photo watch faces, and there are a near-endless number of faces a user can create.

Control over the watch face gallery enables Apple to put copyrighted or infringing material into the hands of users. Also, it means a better experience overall for the look and feel of the device.

Some inventive developers have found ways to customize watch faces by using unique widgets. While this is a limited workaround, it can still provide unique combinations for a more-personal watch face.

Watch Bands and Straps

The design of the scrunchie apple watch band is using a simple hook and sliding mechanism to attach and secure the band in place. Apple offers a range of bands, but third-party manufacturers also make custom bands using Apple’s template. Similar to the era of iPod cases, then iPhone cases, watch bands have exploded into their own micro-business.

apple watch features
apple watch features

At present, every generation shares the same band latches and sizes. This continued even when the device moved to a larger display in the fourth and seventh generations because the watch’s physical size did not change. Pressing one of the buttons on either side of the casing releases the band.

New colors and designs are updated for existing watch bands but rarely seen on new designs or materials. In 2020, Apple announced a line of “Solo” bands without a fastener. Apple designed these bands to stretch over the hand. Users must therefore order them to size.

New watch bands based on country flags were released in June 2021. There are 22 bands to choose from, and users can download the corresponding watch face from Apple’s website.

Watchbands are always a hot-selling product since the first generation watch was released in 2015. However, with each passing update, it is clear that Apple may have to change the connector eventually — rendering watch band collections useless without an adapter.

There’s little reason for Apple to change the strap connectors, but the watch’s exterior design has barely changed since its release, and a complete redesign is possible at any time. Also, if rumors eventually prove true, a new “smart band” connector will be needed.

Digital Crown

The digital crown is based on the traditional time setting crown of an analog watch. Apple set out to re-create this type of analog control for the digital era, leading to the Digital Crown. It rests on conductive liquid metal, allowing the crown to turn without the need for more complex wiring for signals.

apple watch features
apple watch features

The Digital Crown acts as a home button and a scroll wheel for navigation. A long press will invoke Siri, and a double press will switch back to the last app.

A conductive plate is embedded in the flat side of the crown. It serves as part of the circuit from wrist to finger during an ECG on Apple Watch Series 4 and later. You can perform the measurement using the ECG app that is pre-installed on the device.

An update in watchOS 7.2 enables ECG to detect atrial fibrillation at higher heart rates of up to 150BPM. Previously, the ECG app would not work if the user’s heart rate was too high.

Apple repurposed the Digital Crown in the AirPods Max as a volume control knob and Siri interface. It could appear on other products, like the rumored Apple VR headset.

Activity Monitoring

Every generation of Apple Watch includes a variety of technology for activity monitoring. The heart-rate sensor and accelerometer both track movement and activity throughout the day. Apple Health’s Activity Rings display daily progress for three goals: a target exercise goal, calories burned, and hours where a user has gotten up to move.

apple watch features
apple watch features

Apple watches users can share their activity rings inside the Activity app. This app gives users medals based on steady habits and the closing of rings. It also includes a social aspect, allowing users to challenge each other. One initiative called “Apple Watch Connected” will enable gyms to reward their members based on Activity app performance.

Family Setup

Family Setup lets homegroup organizers set up cellular Apple Watches for family members who don’t have dedicated iPhones. Children in the household get their own phone number for each Watch, allowing them to keep in touch even if they don’t have phones.

apple watch features
apple watch features

Family settings allow parents to specify which contacts their children can communicate with. It can give parents automatic location notifications to keep tabs on where their family is. Kids can also use their wearables to track activity.

Schooltime Mode is a feature that helps kids stay focused, limiting available features and activating Do Not Disturb during the school day while giving them a unique watch face.

Family Setup requires a fourth-generation device with cellular capabilities.

Fitness+

Apple released a new subscription called Apple Fitness+. It launched in December 2020 and is available on the Apple TV, iPad, and iPhone as an app.

apple watch features
apple watch features

Users can launch a workout from the device app or the Apple Watch. There are several workouts available, and thanks to the connectivity of Apple’s devices, workout metrics from the Watch will appear on the screen.

The Fitness+ service is constantly updated with new workout videos from many instructors. The workouts range from simple cooldowns to challenging core exercises.

Price

Retail prices start at $199 (USD) across the product line, but retailers regularly offer Apple Watch deals that offer double-digit and triple-digit savings on current and closeout models.

Apple Watch Series Models

Before the Apple Watch was complete, it required the different skills of countless Apple employees and outside experts. Designer Marc Newson was brought in to help, as was Angela Ahrendts, who would become Apple’s senior vice president of Retail and Online Stores.

apple watch features
apple watch features

Unusually, though, it appears that this product began with one person’s idea. Jony Ive, then Apple’s chief designer, reportedly started working on the Watch in 2011. He said that it took three years to go from idea to product. And CEO Tim Cook has separately noted that development began after the death of Steve Jobs.

However, the idea’s origin could have begun as early as 2005. That was when Ive and his design team say they became serious about machining, the kind of technology that ultimately produced Apple’s unibody manufacturing. And to explore how to do this, they visited watch manufacturers.

“We started researching watch companies just to understand machining metals, finishing metals, product assembly,” design team creative lead Doug Satzger said in Leander Kahney’s book, “Jony Ive: The Genius Behind Apple’s Greatest Products.”

Then two months after Jobs died in 2011, the New York Times reported that Apple was researching a wearable computer.

“A person with knowledge of the company’s plans told me that a ‘very small group of Apple employees’ had been conceptualizing and even prototyping some wearable devices,” wrote journalist Nick Bilton. “One idea being discussed is a curved-glass iPod that would wrap around the wrist; people could communicate with the device using Siri, the company’s artificial intelligence software.”

apple watch features
apple watch features

“The brain that brings all these things together is the smartphone, which, after all, is really the first wearable computer,” he continued. “Researchers note that the smartphone is almost never more than three feet away from its user.”

Still, if Ive says it started in 2011, that also means that the Apple Watch was officially Apple’s first entirely new product since its co-founder’s death. With the industry speculating how Apple could fare without Jobs, it was both a product and a way to demonstrate Tim Cook’s direction.

If the aim was to show that Apple could still innovate the way it had, Ive says that he found the process “humbling.” This is a man who worked on the iPhone, literally the most successful product ever made, and yet the Watch was harder.

“Even though Apple Watch does so many things, there are cultural, historical implications and expectations,” Ive said in 2014. “That’s why it’s been such a difficult and humbling program.”

apple watch features
apple watch features

He meant how reinventing the phone had been a lot less complicated than reinventing the watch. Technology has its fans, especially Apple, but the watches and watch collection is an entire other world with its history, rules, and obsessives.

Ive may have been one of them. When the Apple Watch came out, it was seen by some horologists as an affront. As phone manufacturers said, technology firms couldn’t just walk in and make a phone, so some saw Apple as arrogant for launching a watch when it knew nothing about them.

Except when interviewed by leading watch publication Hodinkee, Jony Ive was asked about watches and reportedly recounted an anecdote about buying an Omega Speedmaster Professional in the 90s.

That would be like telling how you bought a Mac SE/30, or perhaps a Mac IIfx –– machines that were expensive, classic, and are still beloved. If that didn’t tell horologists that Ive was serious, then his background is why the Apple Watch leverages watch ideas like complications and a crown.

Series 7

Announced in September 2021, the Apple Watch Series 7 was more a slight design refinement than a major new release. The biggest change was the display, which uses a larger 41mm or 45mm display, depending on the model, and increasing the amount of viewable screen by 20%. 

apple watch features
apple watch features

The increased screen reduces the borders by 40% compared to the 2020 model. While the chassis has been redesigned with more rounded corners, the overall appearance hasn’t massively changed in this iteration. 

Charging’s faster by up to 33%, with an eight-minute charge providing enough power for 8 hours of sleep tracking. 

They are offered in aluminum in five colors, the Apple Watch Series 7 starts from $399. A stainless steel version is also available in silver, graphite, gold, and a space black titanium model.

Rumors had predicted a new flat-sided design, but they were wrong. However, these rumors may still pan out in the “Apple Watch Series 8”.

Series 6

In September 2020, Apple launched the Apple Watch Series 6 and the more family-friendly Apple Watch SE. The latter was aimed at families, particularly children, from its lower price of $279 and its Family Setup features.

apple watch features
apple watch features

Those let a parent set up a Watch for a child without buying them an iPhone, too. And it lets those parents stay in touch with their kids by including location notifications.

If you instead had from $399 to spend on an Apple Watch Series 6 at the time, you could have had the same features –– but also much more. It features a significantly brighter always-on display, a faster processor, and blood oxygen tracking.

Again, Apple pushed the health features, with the latest watchOS 7.2 improving the ECG functions.

Before 2020, every generation of the smartwatch had included a Force Touch Display. This allowed users to press “into” the content to open up contextual menus. If this sounds familiar, it’s because it was the fore-bearer to the now-deprecated 3D Touch.

Because of its small screen and limited interactions, Force Touch on this device stuck around one year longer than on iPhones. However, watchOS 7 and the 2020 hardware updates removed it.

Series 5

Tell us Apple isn’t the king of detail –– and then watch the Apple Watch Series 5 launch presentation on September 20, 2019. The key stand-out feature of this model was its always-on display.

apple watch features
apple watch features

And while it wasn’t always possible to see that an Apple presenter was wearing a Watch, it was always apparent which one. Every presenter was wearing an Apple Watch Series 4 up to the moment the always-on feature was revealed. After that, every presenter for the rest of the launch wore a Series 5.

That always-on feature was a surprise. It had been predicted to come eventually, and it had been wanted from the start, but it was a surprise that Apple had managed it quite so soon.

Apple revealed other new hardware elements, such as an emergency call function and a compass that improved walking directions in Apple Maps. And there were new software options too –– as for the first time, Apple Watch owners could now download apps directly from the App Store.

Apple Watch Series 5 started at $399 for the aluminum GPS-only one. For LTE, it was from $499. And there was again an Apple Watch Edition, this time with a ceramic chassis.

Series 4

The overt red dot from the previous generation, signifying LTE, was dropped in favor of a more subtle red circle on the Apple Watch Series 4. That was the least of the changes made for this generation.

apple watch features
apple watch features

This model was as close to a reinvention of the Watch as Apple had made up to then. It featured an ECG monitoring sensor and a faster processor on the inside.

And on the outside, it was bigger. Gone were the original 38mm and 42mm sizes. In were 40mm and 44mm.

For these “small” and “large” sizes, the difference of an extra 2mm plus reduced bezels meant that the screen should show a lot more information. Alongside all of the familiar Watch elements like the round face, new corner complications came.

Apple Watch Series 4 was launched on September 12, 2018, and prompted many people to sell on their old Watches to get one. They needed $399 for the non-cellular version and $499 for LTE.

Series 3

Released in September 2017, the Apple Watch Series 3 was the first to include cellular capabilities, meaning users could make phone calls from it without their iPhone. LTE Watches had a distinctive red dot in their digital crown, otherwise, there were no visible hardware differences.

apple watch features
apple watch features

There was an audible one, though. For the first time, Siri on Apple Watch could answer you verbally.

If the second-generation models were released to fix issues with the original version, chiefly speed, then the Series 3 felt like something new. Significantly, the Series 3 is still on sale as of 2021, whereas neither the Series 4 nor Series 5 are.

That said, the only versions of the Series 3 you can buy now are with Sport Bands with limited colors. You could get silver, space gray, or gold finishes in aluminum at launch. Or silver and space black in stainless steel.

What you couldn’t get was either ceramic or the original gold. There was no Edition model for two Watch generations.

By this stage, Apple had gone all-in on the idea that Apple Watch was for health and fitness. It always had features for these, but arguably Apple initially positioned it as a fashion accessory.

That may not be true. Apple targeted the fashion market with its gold Apple Watch Edition, then dropped that model. But Apple was entering a brand new market with the Watch, and even Apple needs to make a splash sometimes.

Whether the Watch was a fashion statement or Apple making a statement to the world that it was now in the timepiece game, Series 3 concentrated on health and fitness.

Series 1 and Series 2

The “Series 0” name began to appear in 2016 when Apple launched Apple Watch Series 1 and Apple Watch Series 2. The Series 1 was mostly the same as the original but had a faster processor.

apple watch features
apple watch features

The original Watch had an Apple S1 processor, while the Series 1 had an Apple S1P and the Series 2 an S2P.

Both S1P and S2P were around 50% faster than the original Apple Watch. The Series 2 included GPS, a brighter display, and a degree of waterproofing.

There seemed to be little significant difference in the 2016 Apple Watch releases. They came with watchOS 3, and the latest operating system they can run is watchOS 6.

There were, though, very noticeable changes in pricing. For instance, there was no gold Apple Watch Edition for Series 1 or 2, though there was an Edition in ceramic.

Plus, there was now an Apple Watch Nike version. This included a Nike sport band, which could be bought separately.

With its various bands and different materials, Apple Watch Series 1 started at $269. The Series 2 sold for $369 in aluminum and $549 in stainless steel.

First Generation Coming out

As early as 2012, the word was out about a forthcoming Apple Watch –– or, as it was always called then, the iWatch. At one point, Apple was said to be working with Intel to build its smartwatch.

apple watch features
apple watch features

Apple wouldn’t say yes, and it wouldn’t say no. There was as much speculation then about a watch as there is now about an Apple Car, but infinitely less published information. Few leaks happened, and while there were patents as early as 2007, none were recognized as being for the watch until much later.

Next, in 2013, Apple hired Kevin Lynch as what they described as vice president of technology but was actually the head of the Apple Watch project. If he were the head, though, Jony Ive remained the heart.

And he showed so on September 4, 2014, when, before the Watch was even launched, he privately predicted extreme success. Without directly quoting him or his reported profanity about it, the New York Times said that Ive believed Switzerland’s watch industry was going to be in trouble.

Five days later, Tim Cook introduced… the iPhone 6. And Apple Pay. Then at 55 minutes into the presentation, he said that could’ve been enough.

“We’ve really gone through enough to call it a day,” he said to laughter from the audience. “But we’re not quite finished yet. We have one more thing.”

Tim Cook spent 46 minutes detailing the new Apple Watch, which included a slightly vague promise to release it early the following year. It would ultimately go on sale with pre-orders on April 10, 2015.

Those pre-orders consisted of three models, which Apple called “collections.” There were three available: the 18-carat gold “Edition,” the stainless steel standard model, and the aluminum sport model.

Each came in either 38mm or 42mm sizes, with correspondingly different screens, but were otherwise functionally identical. For instance, all included the Digital Crown, and all of them would only light up their screen when you turned your wrist to see the time.

Otherwise, the Apple Watches only differed in their materials –– and price. While the sport model started at $349, the Edition was made from 18-carat gold and cost north of $10,000.

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